Language and Science - Home - When Reason Beats Grammar

Language and Science – Home – When Reason Beats Grammar

I don’t care about the dog

When the mind defeats the rules

It would be an anomaly in matchmaking, in which the verb pretends to have an indefinite subject, though it seems obvious.

There is a strangeness in the subtitle of our article (which stands above the main title). For those who have noticed, we try to highlight why. Who does not do, above all, what is strange.

We will negotiate

In many languages, certain parts of a sentence refer to each other and are matched with technical terms. In French or Ukrainian, the noun and its attribute are matched by gender and number (in the case of Ukraine as well, but here are only examples): глибока річка [hliboka ricska] ‘Deep river’, but глибоке . perch [hliboke ozero] However, “deep lake” is plural глибокі річки [hliboki ricski] “Deep Rivers” and глибокі озера [hliboki ozera]. In English and Hungarian, on the other hand, there is no compromise here, not because the principle of this category is missing from the two languages, but not in numbers, the adjective is unchanged: deep river “Deep River” and deep rivers “Deep rivers” (no deeps rivers Nor deepwedge rivers). But in English, the adjective does not match even if the phrase is: rivers are deep Rivers are deepwedge(In English, adjectives do not have a plural at all), while in Hungarian, as the translation appears.

deep water

The verb is also consonant in many languages, especially with subject, number, and person. We can also find an example of how the verb matches its subject, and may also match all of its adjectives, as shown below. Volfold In sentences (source Pawlak 2012: 160):

See also  Never get rid of it!

(1) ‘o-wolw-ii “he-talk-t”, but
(2) ‘o-wolw-a-ii Modibo
“He talks to the teacher = Talks to the teacher”

(3) ‘o-ta’y-ii kusel “He cuts meat,” but
(4) ‘o-tae-Irish-ii kusel laɓi
“He – cuts – with a knife – meat = cuts meat with a knife”

The ɓ Implicitly, which one [b]When it falls, air does not flow out from the lungs, but inwards.In sentences (1) and (3), the verb is formed as follows: conciliation refers to the subject + verb + past tense. In sentence (2), the verb is broad -that- Indicates the teacher to whom (or to whom) the subject spoke, in sentence (4) -Irish- And the knife that cuts the subject of meat.

The verb indicates the object

Hungarian can also exhibit a relatively rare phenomenon in the field of verb concordance. In this language, in addition to the subject number and person, the verb can also express the definition or non-definition of the object, and even the object of the object in the case of the subject of the first person and sometimes the third person who has a specific number. . lets see Eat verb:

Topics Something He. She you I/us
me I am eating I am eating S Lake
you Eat es-ed Eat
he is Eat good luck s s
what or what We are eating We are eating We are eating
T Eat You are Eating Eat
yes they eat Eat they eat they eat

We can see that in the singular and in the plural, first and second person objects behave as an indefinite object. However, some themes with different themes in first and third person perspective also have variations that do not appear in the first two columns (with a gray background): S Lake and without the suffix Eat who next to Eat It also appears. (If the subject and the subject are the same person, then Itself The appropriate form of the pronoun should be used as the subject, and this is considered a specific: I eat myself, I eat myself, I eat myself etc.)

But let us now only look at conciliation on a definite and indefinite subject. This affects a lot of verbs, even basically unobtrusive, because they can also be time or space objects, for example: He runs half an hour a day. He runs his arms every morning. the two numbers (Lap run, Lap run) in all six digits (although for some speakers it is EatIn a number that is not in the first speaker: both I am eating).

Contrary to our expectations The dog doesn’t care Despite its apparently past participle, the verb has an indefinite participle form: One I don’t care about dogs either. The reason can be found here dog It does not mean “dog”. (Of course, in the same sense, “normal” The dog is not interested It also happens.)

Not an interested dog

Not an interested dog

We confirm

Note that a particular sentence can only be accepted if dogEmphasize (zoom in): I don’t care about the dog. This is the same focus pattern that has the same meaning No one cares in SENTENCE. If a dog is really what (who?) doesn’t care about this thing, then no Also highlighted. And in this case, the verb must also agree with this specific subject: The dog is not interested Just like in the other sentences where the object means “the same”: The teacher is not interested.

Let’s face it, there The teacher is not interested The sentence, it means “Nothing but the teacher cares”. It is the same You don’t care about the dog and not the cat.

That is, we can conclude: I don’t care about the dog The (figurative) meaning of the term overrides the required rules: the formally defined object behaves like Nobody The pronoun that is considered indefinite, and the emphasis of the sentence is also Nobody-s version.

Nina Pavlac. 2012. Morphological Notation of an Objective Verb Agreement in African Languages. Rocznik Orientalistyczny 65: 158-170.


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