Can we reach another world through black holes?

Can we reach another world through black holes?

While a wormhole became a staple in the science fiction genre after its 2001 premiere: Space Dussia, it has become a source of frustration among scientists. In the first place not because the idea is ridiculous, but because it does not exist in this science-fiction-like form. It may seem surprising that a wormhole is a natural result of the current theories of gravity, which Einstein has been studying for 80 years.

The 2001 science fiction movie: Space Duel was introduced in 1968, as it portrayed an interstellar voyage for the first time using a wormhole.Source: AFP / Photo12

Since then, researchers have been trying to understand if all of this is in fact possible. In 2019, major progress has been made by analyzing the relationships between the nature of space and time and the laws of the subatomic world. Based on the analysis, a new hypothesis has been developed that theoretically shows how space-time jumps can be implemented using black holes.

It is a magic bridge of space-time that collapses instantly

Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen theoretically demonstrated the possibility of unidirectional wormholes, “bridges of space-time” since 1935, based on general relativity. In theory, they found that a black hole, through a tube “ring,” could be connected to another. The Einstein-Rosen bridge appears to be a kind of shortcut through space-time.

Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen. They initially raised the theoretical possibility of wormholesSource: Wikimedia Commons

According to this hypothesis, if a person entered the black hole region beyond the event horizon at a certain point in the universe, he would exit hundreds of thousands or millions of light-years, but without hundreds of thousands or millions of years.

Thus the travel is practically faster than the speed of light between two points in spacetime.

In the 1960s, John Wheeler – who coined the term black hole and wormhole – along with Robet Fullerr, showed that the Einstein-Rosen bridge is a very unstable formation that collapses instantly, almost the moment it forms.

John Archibald Wheeler, a famous theoretical physicist, showed that wormholes can be very unstable formations.Source: Twitter / Sandia National Labs

For years, the most promising idea was that the Einstein-Rosen bridge could be preserved using so-called exotic materials. It is a strange substance capable of breaking the laws of general attraction. While “normal” matter always generates a gravitational force, the negative energy produced by the foreign matter leads to an anti-gravitational repulsion, and this energy does not exist only in theory but also in reality.

Dark energy in an artistic styleSource: SKA Organization / Swinburne Astronomy

In the 1990s, astronomers discovered that the entire universe was expanding under the influence of dark energy.

The only problem is that the exact origin of this anti-gravity and dark energy effect remains unknown.

The same applies to foreign materials. Right now, nobody has any idea how to create such materials, and there’s absolutely no idea how to keep a wormhole open long enough for us to fly through it.

It is a huge gap in our knowledge of the universe

But a radical theoretical realization has now occurred: the survival of the Einstein-Rosen bridge depends on the relationship between the wormhole and quantum theory. This appeared when trying to solve the problem of what happens to objects absorbed by an inevitable black hole.

Stephen Hawking showed that the deteriorating state of matter, the black hole, does not last forever, but is destroyed in an intense radiation eruption at the end of its life, leaving no trace.

Art illustration of a black hole being absorbed into a black holeSource: ESO / M. Kornmeiser

The only problem is that this goes against one of the main tenets of quantum theory, which states that information can never be destroyed.

Nevertheless, black holes appear to be able to permanently erase the information they have “consumed”.

This is the famous black hole paradox. This indicates that there is a huge gap in our knowledge of the universe thus far. Hawking and many others have been trying to resolve this paradox for decades, but without success.

Stephen Hawking couldn’t solve the famous black hole paradox eitherSource:

Now, however, there appears to be an answer; Because wormholes are able to provide an external pathway from the black hole. Simply put, the event horizon is pierced by tiny wormholes.

Allowing information to leak out with radiation,

Hawking has shown that he is tearing a black hole apart. This, in turn, provides insight into the nature of the wormhole and also whether it is permeable.

Frighteningly removable black holes are like spacetime gates

To date, the negative energy of antimatter has been the only known theoretical method for maintaining the interoperability of the wormhole, i.e. to prevent the bridge from collapsing. Jafferis says the quantum effect allows for some negative energy. But it has long been suspected that what is needed to maintain an interoperable wormhole is physically impossible.

Albert Einstein formulated the general theory of relativity and the concept of spacetimeSource: Popper Foto / Getty Images

Jafferis and his colleagues, Dr. Ping Gao and Dr. Aron Wall, believe they have discovered another source for this. The direct interaction of the two ends of an impermeable wormhole, more precisely between black holes, can lead to negative energy, and the resulting anti-gravity effect prevents the bridge from collapsing, that is, the wormhole becomes permeable.

Artistic depiction of two inspiring black holes touching each otherForrás: ARC Center of Excellence for Detection of Gravitational Waves (OzGrav) / Mark Myers

When Jafferis and colleagues say, “direct interaction,” it means that the two black holes that make up the wormhole’s mouth are interacting through normal real space.Binary black hole systems that consume Hawking radiation to each other are good examples of this because radiation consumption is a direct link. Jafferis says.

Therefore, based on theoretical considerations, an interoperable wormhole may already exist.

According to Jafferis, it’s not out of principle to send a person over that corridor, but there are some big issues that still need to be resolved. Black holes should not only be standard types of collapsing remnants of large stars, but they also must be extremely connected.

It is not known what could be behind the event horizon of a black holeSource: Wikimedia Commons / XMM-Newton, ESA, NASA

This type of interaction indicates quantum entanglement, or, as Einstein called it, a frightening distance. (This distance effect is also being studied by large companies like Google to create a superfast quantum computer.) However, while under laboratory conditions we can relatively easily link subatomic particles to quantum entanglement, nobody has any idea how to do something like this in color. Black holes.

We already have the tools to spot wormholes

In theory, however, a direct interaction between two black holes could occur, which – also only in theory – would allow space-time to jump through the resulting wormhole. Currently, the focus of the research is on real discovery and observation. Vermin. One of the most important tasks is deciphering the difference between a regular black hole and a black hole that is a gate for wormholes.

Wormhole simulationForrás: David and Paulo Saluchi

Rajbul Sheikh, a theoretical physicist at the Tata Institute for Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India, says the answer should be sought in the subtle differences in how black holes affect their environment, especially the behavior of light passing near black holes.

As Einstein predicted in the general theory of relativity, the curves of light in the gravitational field.

The intense gravitational pull of black holes generates incredible heat, and the materials orbiting around them create a shiny accretion disk around them.

Illustration of a disc accretion around a black holeSource: Science Photo Library via AFP

An invisible black hole reveals its existence by projecting it onto the shiny accretion disk as a dark, black shadow. From the shape of this shadow it can be inferred

Whether a black hole contains a wormhole or not.

It is important to emphasize that research on this is not yet complete, but astronomers already have tools for discovering the effects that predict wormholes.

A scene from Stanley Kubrick’s 2001 book: The Duel of Space, which first raised the leap of space-time using wormholesSource: MGM

To our knowledge, only interoperable wormholes allow for large jumps in space and time that may seem impossible to overcome.

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